The necessity and effects of affirmative

Although our attitudes towards race have changed, the consequences of our past attitudes have remained.

Affirmative action essay conclusion

The authors note how elite universities give additional weight to different characteristics in which academic preferences for athletes and legacies often compete with the preference for minority applicants. These licenses are for businesses serving the rapidly growing number of users of pocket-sized telephones, fax machines, pagers, and handheld computers. Derek Bok, the former president of Harvard University, discusses race-based affirmative action in college admissions. The concept of affirmative action is that positive steps should be taken to ensure equality, instead of ignoring discrimination or waiting for society to fix itself. Allan Bakke was a white applicant who was denied enrollment to Davis's medical school, even though his test scores were higher than the minority students who were admitted. In other words, persons with equal abilities should have equal opportunities. As an issue of today's society, affirmative action requires corporations, universities and other organizations to establish programs designed to ensure that all applicants are treated fairly. In March of , President John F. Affirmative action has helped numerous minorities to get accepted into college, and eventually to achieve in their careers including Barack Obama and Sonia Sotomayor, who have credited affirmative action with helping them get accepted into prestigious universities. Two important Supreme Court rulings in the lates also acted to substantially weaken affirmative action. Although civil rights groups quickly blocked the measure with a court injunction, it took effect in August when the injunction was overturned on appeal. In the former case, the Court invalidated a particular admissions policy used by the University of Michigan's College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. In the latter case, the Court upheld the right of the University of Michigan Law School to consider race and ethnicity in admissions. Critics charged that affirmative action was a form of "reverse discrimination," meaning that by favoring minorities and women it discriminated against white males.

Rather, he argued for a more active interpretation of affirmative action that would assure "equality as a result. Supreme Court rulings on the subject of affirmative action. Two important issues were contested in the wake of the Civil Rights Act of whether unintentional or structural discrimination constituted violation of the principle of equal opportunity; and the extent to which preferential treatment should be given to affected groups.

thesis on affirmative action

Many lack the background knowledge and resources that a good number of white kids have to succeed. Sander, Richard. Supreme Court decisions have examined the affirmative action policies of competitive state schools such as the University of California and the University of Michigan.

Goals and timetables were established by the U. This decision is seen as a rejection of the use of quotas in admission policies at public institutions of higher education. Published on: Invalid date.

affirmative action essay

Affirmative Action Around the World. To carry out the conciliation process, the act created a new federal agency as a branch of the U.

The necessity and effects of affirmative
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The Necessity of Affirmative Action