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Mortierella alpina, an oleaginous filamentous fungus producing commercial arachidonic acid AA, C used as an additive in infant formulas, has been recognized as a potential strain to commercially produce EPA from AA via an omega-3 desaturase Sakuradani et al.

To acquire insight into substrate requirements of PPD17, different fatty acid substrates were supplied in the media. This new omega-3 desaturase shares high similarities with known omega-3 desaturases and has a wide omega-6 fatty acid substrate preference including both C and C omega-6 fatty acids with strong delta desaturase activity but weaker delta desaturase activity. These bacteria-laden compartments are often seen in close association with the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments [ 13 ], suggesting that Wolbachia may directly interact with host organelles to support its survival and co-opt normal host pathways in order to obtain nutrients and to prevent autophagic degradation in the host [ 14 — 16 ]. Furthermore, we optimized the culture medium and the conditions of EPA-producing M. Five candidates strongly inhibited yeast growth upon expression, and 6 additional proteins showed toxicity in the presence of zinc and caffeine. The structure arrangements of all these desaturases are very similar and consist of four membrane-spanning domains and one catalytic domain on the cytosolic side of the membrane Figure 1B. Nevertheless, there has been other study reported that EPA production was up to 1. The little EPA production could be attributed to the low activity of the endogenous omega-3 desaturase gene at room temperature.

Functional classification Functional classification of unique sequences from S. Miller and Casey W.

Using a variety of bioinformatic approaches Materials and Methods , we identified 47 candidate effectors Table 1 that displayed one or more of the following characteristics: i eukaryotic-like protein possessing domains which share higher levels of homology to eukaryotic proteins than bacterial ones. The sequences reported in this study have been made available for incorporation into Spodobase [ 18 ]. The EPA production grown on corn starch and glucose were up to 1. Abstract Wolbachia is an unculturable, intracellular bacterium that persists within an extremely broad range of arthropod and parasitic nematode hosts, where it is transmitted maternally to offspring via vertical transmission. Miller and Casey W. Extraction and methyl esterification of TFAs were carried out as described previously Wang et al. Conversion rate of yeast transformants on different fatty acids at different temperature.

In addition, Xue et al. Introduction After leprosy, lymphatic filariasis is the leading cause of permanent disability, afflicting at least million people worldwide [ 12 ].

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For commercial EPA production by M. Nitrogen are key components in the growth media for microorganisms and the inexpensive nitrogen source soybean meal had been reported to enhance the biomass and fatty acid production in M.

Extraction and methyl esterification of TFAs were carried out as described previously Wang et al. This new omega-3 desaturase shares high similarities with known omega-3 desaturases and has a wide omega-6 fatty acid substrate preference including both C and C omega-6 fatty acids with strong delta desaturase activity but weaker delta desaturase activity.

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All authors read and approved the final manuscript. In this transformant, the accumulated AA decreased to 8. A Map of fragment bands in the genome.

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