A behavior model for persuasive design

A behavior model for persuasive design

Consider, for example, how Facebook motivates new users to upload profile pictures. Those types of triggers would either be annoying or condescending.

Not all triggers function in the same way.

behavioural science models

The FBM gives insight into the failure of poorly-timed triggers, the annoyance of this distraction, and the frustration that results.

As researchers and designers of behavior change, we should seek to find what resource is scarcest for our audience: Is it time? Optimizing this factor can move users across the behavior activation threshold. When a behavior does not occur, at least one of those three elements is missing.

fogg behavior model example

For example, if I need to fill out an online form that has fields in it, that behavior is not simple for me because I usually have other demands on my time. In the FBM this target behavior is represented by a star.

Fogg behavior model motivation

The FBM highlights three principal elements, each of which has subcomponents. Insight from the Behavior Model The FBM asserts that when people are persuaded to perform a behavior, then three factors have come together at once: motivation, ability, and trigger. In fact, Facebook gains its power to motivate and ultimately influence users mostly because of this motivator. Fear is the anticipation of something bad, often the anticipation of loss. This would place the star high, in the upper right hand corner of Figure 1. This would place the star high, in the upper right hand corner of Figure1. To take away ability? Some people have more time, some people have more money, and some people can invest brain cycles, while others cannot. The FBM does not rank the power of the core motivators. This third factor is often the missing piece. Second, we associate the trigger with a target behavior. A trigger can take many forms — an alarm that sounds, a text message, an announcement that a sale is ending, a growling stomach, and so on. This clashes with the natural wiring of human adults: We are fundamentally lazy. When the combination of motivation and ability places a person above the behavior activation threshold, then a trigger will cause that person to perform the target behavior. A common example is the 1-click shopping at Amazon.

By using this framework we can look at our own persuasive designs, either in research or commercial settings, and see new potentials for persuading users. Now I will change the scenario to show a situation where users have low ability.

Creating persuasive technologies: an eight-step design process

This clashes with the natural wiring of human adults: We are fundamentally lazy. The second axis is horizontal, as shown in Figure 1. For example software updates often use facilitators to gain compliance by implying that one click can get the job done. The power of social motivation is likely hardwired into us and perhaps all other creatures that historically depended on living in groups to survive. Figure2 summarizes these elements. Many other people have proposed ways to understand persuasion and behavior change, dating back to Aristotle in ancient Greece. Conversely, when we want to perform the behavior being triggered but lack ability, we feel frustrated.

In general, persuasive design focuses on increasing motivation, increasing ability simplicityand triggering behavior. As mobile phones become more context aware, the trigger- behavior coupling will go beyond the desktop into our active lives.

An ordinary example of a signal is a traffic light that turns red or green.

Stanford behavior design lab

These three factors must occur at the same moment, else the behavior will not happen. Simplicity has six parts. Why not Let me explain. In contrast, the users in the upper right corner — those with both high motivation and ability — are much better candidates for typing their addresses. We are surrounded by attempts to change our behaviors. The right side is for high ability. Time The first element of simplicity is time. When everyone on a team is thinking about behavior change in a similar way, the project goes forward more efficiently. Figure 2 summarizes these elements. However, this form seems the most natural and practical. As researchers and designers of behavior change, we should seek to find what resource is scarcest for our audience: Is it time Is it the ability to think Is it money Whatever the scarcest resource happens to be, once we account for the six factors of simplicity, we can reduce the barriers for performing a target behavior. Facilitator as Trigger This type of trigger is appropriate for users that have high motivation but lack ability. Scott might phone his math-whiz neighbor to come over to help him solve the puzzle.
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Figure 1 from A behavior model for persuasive design